This is about tech that is not encountered on a daily basis, but PCs would still be aware of it.
The science of nanotechnology has increased at a pretty fair rate. It is used almost daily in hospitals and some clinics for surgery and techniques that are better suited for nanites. This means less recovery time in the hospital as the surgery is non-intrusive and the nanites are washed out of the body by normal bodily functions. Once they have completed their task they become inert and allow the blood stream to begin the filtering process.
The average street monkey would recognize the phrase "Nanotechnology", but would probably only know it as something those scientist folks use to do that science stuff. Besides, the icon for it would be too small.
Biotechnology and Genetics
Yup, this is covered quite well in Shadowtech (a fine publication, if I may say so), but some of the applications of biotech go much further than suping up a street samurai or decker: biotech has some much more effective uses. Waste treatment plants use it to a great extent.
Man is in space, but a portion of the populace remains semi-ignorant to that fact. In one of the campaigns I play in, Aztlan is on the moon and Renraku is seeding a few of the planets with nobody knows what.
I've always been of the school of thought that most cyberware is powered by the bodys own electrical current, as well as muscular motion and activities. Some of the larger pieces, as well as some of the more powerful ones, would have to utilize an additional power source. This doesn't need to be anything that comes into gameplay, just in a descriptive role. Whenever a character goes to the hospital they automatically check the onboard power sources for charge levels and replace them if needed. If a person has no need to go to a hospital, then they would get notification every couple of years that its time for a "checkup" of sorts. They then would visit a hospital or clinic and get the needed parts replaced at an affordable rate.
What external cyberware looks like is up to the player or GM. It could go the way of real flesh covered limbs to super chromed. I believe that the world of Shadowrun lends itself more to a concealment of ones abilities. After all, information is everything, and if you have info that the "bad guy" doesn't, then you have an advantage. Of course, he might also...
Different people have different concepts of how alot of cyber works. In my opinion, once a person gets used to his installed cyber, it becomes second nature. (He's giving up some essence for it to reside in his body, he should be able to use it to its fullest.)
When a person has multiple options, say in an eye, then there is no reason that he cannot use more than one of those options at a time. His IR display should be able to overlap his thermographic and telescopic displays without much problem. Any modifiers for doing so (in the GMs opinion) should be applied, but its stupid to say that you can only use one option at a time. Same goes for audio: hearing amp, select sound filter and a dampener should all work in harmony to achieve the characters goal. Otherwise why have cyber in the first place. You could just carry around a bag full of electronics. And don't use the excuse that it makes the character more powerful; it does, but he spent money and essence on it, as well as healing time. There should be some advantage. It keeps the mages on their toes.
Otherwise known as bioware. Bionetics as an elective type surgery is pretty new to the world of 2054. Experimental surgery, such as transplanting baboon hearts into willing patients, is still around but elective surgery is still pretty new, due to the cost. Some people might know someone who had a bioware implant due to an accident, or serious illness, but just going out and getting a Suprathyroid stuck in is unheard of.